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Fruitport Road Bridge

Bowen Bridge

   


Fruitport Road Bridge

Primary Photographer(s): Nathan Holth

Bridge Documented: April 28, 2006
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Key Facts

Facility Carried / Feature Intersected
Fruitport Road Over Petty's Bayou
Location
Spring Lake: Ottawa County, Michigan
Construction Date and Builder / Engineer
1948 By Builder/Contractor: L. W. Lamb Company of Jackson, Michigan and Engineer/Design: Michigan State Highway Department

Technical Facts

Rehabilitation Date
Not Available or Not Applicable
Main Span Length
53.8 Feet (16.4 Meters)
Structure Length
418 Feet (127.4 Meters)
Roadway Width
24.3 Feet (7.3 Meters)
Spans
9 Main Span(s)
NBI Number
70200079000B010

Historic Significance Rating (HSR)

Bridge Documentation

This Bridge No Longer Exists!

View Archived National Bridge Inventory Report - Has Additional Details and Evaluation

This historic bridge was demolished in 2008.

This bridge is a very long example of 1940s beam bridge construction. With original railings, the bridge also retains a high degree of historic integrity. MDOT mentions that the swampy nature of the soil required special support design with this bridge. Indeed, the supports do have an appearance that is unlike that seen in other bridges built during this period. The bridge is in good condition also with weight limits only posted for trucks with more than two axels, 68 tons for three axels, and 47 for more than three axels. This bridge is located at an area that appears to be a popular boat launch for small craft. The bridge creates a nice complement to an attractive region, and should be maintained for its continued historic and functional value.

Despite the historic value of the bridge and despite the relatively good condition of the bridge (it only had posted weight limits for combination axel trucks) this historic bridge was demolished and replaced, with the replacement bridge reusing the substructure of the historic bridge, and the metal portions of the original railing were salvaged and reused. Also, the replacement bridge was also the same general type: a steel stringer bridge rather than something different like a pre-stressed concrete slab. As such, some might try to bill the project as a preservation or rehabilitation project because a number of features from the historic bridge were retained. However HistoricBridges.org policy has always been to consider any project which completely replaces all of the main spans in a bridge to be a demolition and replacement project. This reason for this policy is much more clear in situations where a complex superstructure like a truss bridge is replaced with a pre-stressed concrete box beam bridge. However in both that scenario and with the Fruitport Road Bridge, the part of the bridge which spans the feature has been completely destroyed.

As Section 106 mitigation for an adverse effect of demolition, this is a great example project. The substructure was reused, the replacement bridge type was the same structure type, and the metal portions of the original railing were salvaged and reused. However, it cannot be called historic bridge preservation, particularly considering that the historic structure could have been rehabilitated.

Information and Findings From Michigan Historic Bridge Inventory

Narrative Description

MDOT Historic Bridge Ottawa County Fruitport Rd. / PettyThis multiple-span concrete/steel bridge carries the Fruitport Road over the Pettys Bayou, an arm of Spring Lake, between the villages of Spring Lake and Fruitport. Extending 418 feet in overall length, the Bowen Bridge is comprised of nine steel stringer spans, five at 55 feet in length, two at 53 feet and two at 18 feet. Each span is made up of eight lines of rolled I-beams, with steel channel spandrel beams, all braced laterally by solid steel diaphragms. The superstructure is supported by concrete spill-through piers, each of which rests on two steel caissons.

The bridge's location over a marshy inlet necessitated unusually deep foundations. "The design was dictated by the type of material underlying the lake bottom which provided very low bearing values at depths of over 100 feet below the water surface," MSHD engineer C.H. Voss stated in 1949. "In order to provide satisfactory bearing for the foundation units, the substructure was designed to incorporate the use of friction piling which was provided by the use of tapered, fluted shell piles in the pier units and timber piles in the abutment units."

The Bowen Bridge features standard MSHD design and detailing, with corbelled steps on the bulkheads and concrete piers, ornamental steel guardrails with concrete posts, and a concrete deck that corbels over the spandrels to form stringcourses. Today the bridge is in excellent structural condition, without alterations.

Formed in 1911, the Ottawa County Road Commission immediately began an ambitious program of countywide road and bridge construction, entailing almost 200 miles of roads. One of the routes originally designated by the commission was the Fruitport Road, a 1 1/2 -mile stretch in Spring Lake Township. The commission began actual construction of this and other county roads in the spring of 1912. Under the supervision of County Surveyor Emmet Peck, work progressed throughout the county during the 1910s. In 1921, the commission hired civil engineer Carl Bowen. A former MSHD employee, Bowen was responsible not only for the road and bridge engineering in Ottawa County but for day-to-day operation of the road commission. He held the position for more than three decades before retiring around 1956.

One of the bridges built under Bowen's tenure was this multiple-span structure over Pettys Bayou on the Fruitport Road. The Michigan State Highway Department engineered the structure late in 1947 on behalf of the county. MSHD designated the bridge as a Federal Aid Secondary project, solicited competitive proposals and awarded the contract to build it to L.W. Lamb of Holland, Michigan, and the Luedtke Engineering Company of Frankfort.

Poor bearing conditions dictated an innovative substructural system. According to Voss, "The abutment units are of cellular construction supported on timber piling. This type of construction was selected to reduce the weight on the underlying soil and to spread the bearing over a greater area so as to avoid superimposing loads on the approach fill." The piers were caisson-type over driven piles. Construction on the bridge commenced in February 1948 and continued unabated until a two-week break in July. The last concrete was poured in November; the bridge was opened to traffic on December 3, 1948. Total cost :$237,000.

At the request of the local Chamber of Commerce, the bridge was dedicated on June 24 as the Bowen Bridge. The structure "honors Bowen for his long service to the commission," state the Grand Haven Daily Tribune. "For 27 years he has guided the development of county highways and bridges, virtually lifting most county roads out of literal sand ruts of years ago."

Statement of Significance

The Bowen Bridge has since carried vehicular traffic on this secondary route, in essentially unaltered condition. The Bowen Bridge represented one of the most important pieces of post-WWII construction in Ottawa County. It is historically important for its association with Carl Bowen, a locally important personage. And it is technologically noteworthy as a well-preserved example of late-1940s bridge construction in Michigan.

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